CCNA – CCIE Course

Currently the corresponding exam numbers from Cisco for the CCNA are:

640-802 CCNA Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1
Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2
640-822 ICND1 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1
640-816 ICND2 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2

Currently the corresponding exam numbers from Cisco for the CCNP Program are :
642-901 BSCI Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI)
642-812 BCMSN Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN)
642-825 ISCW Implementing Secure Converged Wide Area Networks (ISCW)
642-845 ONT Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT)
OR
642-892 Composite Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI)
Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN)
642-825 ISCW Implementing Secure Converged Wide Area Networks (ISCW)
642-845 ONT Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT)

Currently the corresponding exam numbers from Cisco for the CCSP Program are:
642-504 SNRS Networks with Cisco Routers and Switches (SNRS)
642-524 SNAF Securing Networks with ASA Foundation (SNAF)
642-533 IPS Implementing Cisco Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
Elective Exam(s) Elective Training
642-591 CANAC Implementing Cisco NAC Appliance (CANAC)
OR
642-545 MARS Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis and Response System (MARS)
OR
642-515 SNAA Securing Networks with ASA Advanced (SNAA)

CCVP
642-436 CVOICE Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE v6.0)
Cisco Voice over IP fundamentals (CVF v1.0)
642-446 CIPT1(CIPT1 v6.0) Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Part 1
642-642 QoS Quality of Service (QoS)
642-456 CIPT2 Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager
642-426 TUC(TUC v1.0) Troubleshooting Cisco Unified Communications Systems

From : knowledge computers > cisco study kits

Why use a network

Connecting computers in a local area network lets people increase their inefficiency by sharing files, resources, and more. Local area networking has attained much popularity in recent years–so much that it seems networking was just invented. In reality, local area networks (LANs) appeared more than ten years ago, when the arrival of the microcomputer gave multiple users access to the same computer.

These are three of the most common benefits of using a LAN.

* Increased efficiency

* Improved communications

* Lowered costs.

LANs increase the efficiency of workers by letting them exchange data and by eliminating redundant effort. The most common means of sharing information on a LAN is the corporate database. Corporations commonly have several departments performing very differeent tasks, but the departments are generally working with the same type of information. A mail-order company, for example, works with customer name and address data, product numbers and pricing data, and shipping and inventory information. It make the company far more efficient and organized to keep the data in one database, letting each user access the data that he or she needs.

LANs improve communications by offering a way of sending messages electronically. Many networks have full-fledged mail systems, called elctronic mail (E-mail), through which users can send each other everything from corporate memos to informal hellos.

LANs saved money by letting corporations license network versions of software to share among users. Likewise, there can be major savings in hardware purchasing because each network may need only one of each device. Rather than equipping each user with his or her own set of office equipment, a company can create a network consisting of a group of microcomputers with, for example, one laser printer, one tape backup unit, one CD-ROM drive, one fax machine, and one hard drive. By saving money in this way, it’s often possible to purchase higher-quality equipment for the group than would have been possible for each individual.

Kinds of Networks

LANs are divided into two types: client-server and peer-to-peer. a client-server network has one or more central computers, called file servers, to which are connected all the other workstations. A workstation is a personal computer connected to a file server. The file server controls all network activity, such as who can use the system and what data users have access to. The advantages of client-server networks include control, security, and speed. Drawbacks can include high cost, difficult installation, and overdependence on a single system (the server). When the server goes down, the whole network goes down.

A peer-to-peer network is a group of microcomputers in which no single system is in charge and all workstations operate as equals. Each workstation can share its files and applications with any other workstations connected to the network. The benefits of peer-to-peer networking include simplicity, lower cost, ease of installation, and ease of maintenance. The drawbacks can include insufficient security, inadequate control, and lack of speed.

With the two basic types of LANs defined, it’s important to understand that there are several varieties within each category, just as there’s a range of uses for each type. What type of LAN you need depends on your intended use for it.

NetWare: A Client-Server Approach

Novell NetWare is an example of a client-server network. What sets the client-server network apart from the peer-to-peer network is the function of the file server. It, too, is a personal computer, but it runs an operating system such as NetWare to control the network. The file server controls all the workstations on the network in terms of how they access network resources. A network administrator manages the file server by overseeing network security, troubleshooting problems, and more.

The workstations connected to a NetWare network can still function as separate computers with their own operating systems. In fact, even when your computer is connected to a network, what you see on the screen may look the same as when you’re not on a network. But when you access the file server, the work you send back and forth is subject to the rights and restrictions imposed by the network administrator. Often, the network administrator takes care of setting users up on the network, which entails physically connecting the workstation to the file server, as well as adding the user name and assigning a password. Users generally know just enough to get their jobs done on the network, but knowing a bit more of the way the network works can sometimes help guide you to some shortcuts and quick fixes that may simplify your networking tasks.

To begin, it’s important to understand how a workstation communicates with the file server. First, there’s the hardware connection, which consists of a networking card installed in the workstation with a cable that connects to the file server. The second piece of the puzzle is the software. The shell is the software needed for the workstation to communicate with the file server. The network administrator loads the shell onto each workstation. The shell directs your commands either to your own workstation or to the file server, depending on what kind of command it is.

To understand how the file server stores the information you send it, think of a file cabinet as an analogy. The file server is the cabinet. Within it are the drawers, or volumes (Within the drawers (volumes) are folders, or directories. Within those folders (directories) are pieces of paper, or files.

Used Cisco Q&A

If you take heed of the above advice, and find yourself in the right circumstance, eBay buying experiences can save you money – as long as you’re willing to take the steps needed to safeguard the transaction.

Here is some more background on used Cisco products:

(the following is excerpted from a post I wrote for Network World)

How soon do Cisco Routers and Switches become available Used?

2-3 Months after a product has been released new, you can typically find it used. This may come as a surprise to some who assume you can only find 2nd or 3rd generation hardware used. Due to bankruptcies, mistaken purchases, or demo units, it is possible to find the latest and greatest as well as EOL equipment.

Is Used Cisco the same as Gray Market Cisco?

No, Gray Market product is equipment that has been purchased new from another country in order to be sold in a region where the manufacturer charges more for it. Used Cisco hardware is just previously used equipment given a second life.

What condition of equipment should I expect from Used Cisco hardware?

Just because you’re purchasing used equipment, you shouldn’t have to settle for low quality. Cisco reman and used Cisco gear from legitimate brokers is typically in similar condition to what is currently in your datacenter. Occasionally dealers will offer further discounts on “ugly-duckling” equipment that functions but has some scratches or dings. You should be informed of this upfront though.

How are prices set on the used market?

The used Cisco market is an open market where equipment is traded as a second-hand commodity. Prices rise and fall based on perceived availability and demand in the marketplace. The best way to compare prices is to do so against other resellers because comparing against list is completely arbitrary. Depending on the model or feature, discounts can range from 30 to 90% off list.

When is the best time to buy?

Give yourself time to check out all of your options, but also know that used resellers can typically ship overnight if you’re in a pinch. End of month, end of quarter and end of year are great times to buy as sales reps aim to meet their quotas.

Who buys Used Cisco?

Fortune 500s and SMBs alike. Individuals, resellers, government agencies and manufacturers, too.

Should you consider used Cisco?

You have to decide for yourself, but it is definitely worth getting a quote or two so that you can make an informed decision. Some users start with training or demo hardware and then move to development or production units if their confidence gets to that level.

Used Cisco Equipment Q&A

If you take heed of the above advice, and find yourself in the right circumstance, eBay buying experiences can save you money – as long as you’re willing to take the steps needed to safeguard the transaction.

Here is some more background on used Cisco products:
(the following is excerpted from a post I wrote for Network World)

How soon do Cisco Routers and Switches become available Used?

2-3 Months after a product has been released new, you can typically find it used. This may come as a surprise to some who assume you can only find 2nd or 3rd generation hardware used. Due to bankruptcies, mistaken purchases, or demo units, it is possible to find the latest and greatest as well as EOL equipment.

Is Used Cisco the same as Gray Market Cisco?

No, Gray Market product is equipment that has been purchased new from another country in order to be sold in a region where the manufacturer charges more for it. Used Cisco hardware is just previously used equipment given a second life.

What condition of equipment should I expect from Used Cisco hardware?

Just because you’re purchasing used equipment, you shouldn’t have to settle for low quality. Cisco reman and used Cisco gear from legitimate brokers is typically in similar condition to what is currently in your datacenter. Occasionally dealers will offer further discounts on “ugly-duckling” equipment that functions but has some scratches or dings. You should be informed of this upfront though.

How are prices set on the used market?

The used Cisco market is an open market where equipment is traded as a second-hand commodity. Prices rise and fall based on perceived availability and demand in the marketplace. The best way to compare prices is to do so against other resellers because comparing against list is completely arbitrary. Depending on the model or feature, discounts can range from 30 to 90% off list.

When is the best time to buy?

Give yourself time to check out all of your options, but also know that used resellers can typically ship overnight if you’re in a pinch. End of month, end of quarter and end of year are great times to buy as sales reps aim to meet their quotas.

Who buys Used Cisco?

Fortune 500s and SMBs alike. Individuals, resellers, government agencies and manufacturers, too.

Should you consider used Cisco?

You have to decide for yourself, but it is definitely worth getting a quote or two so that you can make an informed decision. Some users start with training or demo hardware and then move to development or production units if their confidence gets to that level.

Seven Tips to buying Used Cisco on eBay

1) Communicate with the seller before the auction closes.

The “ask seller a question” button is your friend. It allows you to get answers to any questions that you might have about an item before you buy. Even if no burning questions come to mind, I still like to use this feature to make sure I’m dealing with a real person, and to gain some insight into how helpful of a seller they’ll be.

2) Check the freight cost.

Sure, a big Cisco Switch might look like a killer deal at $150 on eBay. But don’t get stuck buying it before you find out it is shipping from Australia and freight will be four times the purchase price. IT systems can be hefty, and accordingly, so can the freight. If there isn’t a flat fee listed or a way to calculate freight, then ask the seller for assistance.

3) Do a background check.

A surface level check can be done by looking at the number of previous sales and reading buyers’ feedback. I’m usually not comfortable unless I see at least 15 to 20 previous transactions with genuine feedback – not generically created. If the dollar amount is over $1000, I’ll look for a history of closer to 100 transactions or more.

4) Background Check 2.0: Go Deeper.

Trusting the seller is so important, that sometimes we have to look even further. If I don’t feel comfortable after examining the seller’s eBay history, then I might get a little bit more creative. I will contact them and ask them for some information about their business. If they happily submit information and give legitimate information to back it up (non-P.O. Box addresses, references, etc…) then I’m much more confident. Also, check to see if they mention their business in the listing and look it up on your favorite search engine.

5) Make comparisons off eBay.

Find something listed on eBay, but you’re not sure if it’s the best deal? Google it and you’ll find respected businesses that carry it. You’ll often find similar pricing, with warranties and customer service built-in that you wouldn’t get at auction.

6) Ask for a better deal.

Viewed an auction that didn’t sell? Ask the seller if they would lower their price for you and re-list it as a “buy-it-now” auction at your agreed upon price. You can also barter on shipping costs, or ask them to use your shipping account and not charge a fee. Some don’t go for it, but asking never hurts.

7) Buy-it-Now is not get-it-now.

Always check to make sure the lister still has the hardware, and what the lead time will be. I’ve found that sometimes companies or individuals post renewable listings, then forget about them. In the meantime, they’ve sold the item and no longer have it. If they do agree to fulfill the order, it can take weeks or months to receive the delivery – due to their need to source it. I used to think “Buy-it-now” was automatic, but now I always double check.