Why Choose Cisco Router

A systems approach begins with a single, resilient platform such as the Cisco integrated services routers. A systems approach combines packaging with intelligent services within and between services, and weaves voice, security, routing, and application services together, so that processes become more automated and more intelligent. The results are pervasive security in the network and applications; higher QoS for data, voice, and video traffic; increased time to productivity; and better use of network resources.

With the integrated services router, Cisco offers a comprehensive, future-proofed solution that minimizes network outages and ensures access to the most business-critical applications. Cisco’s focus on integrating new infrastructure services with performance enables companies to create networks that are more intelligent, resilient, and reliable. For organizations of all sizes that need fast, secure access to today’s mission-critical applications as well as a foundation for future growth, Cisco routers:

  • Provide the industry’s first portfolio engineered for secure, wire-speed delivery of concurrent data, voice, and video services
  • Embed security and voice services into a single routing system
  • Use an integrated systems approach to embedded services that speeds application deployment and reduces operating costs and complexity
  • Provide unparalleled services performance and investment protection
  • Unlike specialized niche products, Cisco Integrated Services Routers embed security and voice services as a single resilient system for ease of deployment, simplified management, and lower operating costs. Cisco routers provide the secure communications solutions you need today, while laying the foundation for tomorrow’s Intelligent Information Networks.

    In addition, Cisco Integrated Services Routers:

  • Provide fast, secure access to mission-critical business applications and unmatched investment protection for future growth, enabling organizations to easily deploy and manage converged communications solutions with end-to-end security for maximum end user productivity
  • Feature industry-leading services densities, bandwidth, availability, and performance options for maximum configuration flexibility and scalability for the most demanding networking environments
  • Provide a broad range of voice densities and services, allowing customers to easily enable end-to-end, best-in-class IP Communications solutions, while providing a foundation for future growth and investment protection
  • Are the only routers that allow organizations to build a foundation for an intelligent, self-defending network, featuring best-in-class security services and routing technologies for the lowest total cost of ownership and highest return on investment.
  • Network security risks multiply when enterprises begin outsourcing

    The network security risks of outsourcing technology jobs offshore are weighing heavily on the minds of IT executives, according to a survey — and with good reason. Opening network access to overseas firms without the right protections in place could leave an enterprise vulnerable to a network security breach.

    “People don’t put in the same controls they would have for a remote employee,” said Rob Ayoub, global program director of network security at Frost & Sullivan. “The challenge becomes that those are added costs, and when you’re outsourcing to save money [while] you have to put in these compensating controls … it’s no longer such a savings.”

    Organizations outsourcing technology jobs offshore in 2009 were “significantly” more likely to report an unauthorized network intrusion than those that didn’t, according to the 5th Annual Security Survey of IT Executives / Network Administrators by Amplitude Research Inc., commissioned by VanDyke Software.

    Sixty-nine percent of 350 respondents said they generally felt outsourcing put network security at risk. Even many of the IT professionals within organizations that actually do outsource IT functions believe that outsourcing carries a network security risk. Of the 29% of respondents who said their companies outsource, half said this practice has a negative impact on network security.

    “Certainly, when you outsource your work — say, outsourcing software development to somewhere like India — that does add a risk,” Ayoub said. “You have to implement protections around that to make sure your codes are not being stolen and limit access directly into your network controls.”

    Applications can be targets for a network security breach

    Hacks or unauthorized intrusions afflicted 42% of organizations in the past year, down from 48% the year before. When the survey began in 2005, 44% reported intrusions.

    “Everyone is really good at patching Windows, and everyone’s pretty good at patching Office,” Ayoub said, but often they leave openings in other applications, thinking they won’t be targets. “I’m not looking to get into Adobe to get your PDF. I exploit a vulnerability in Adobe to get a good foothold into your network.”

    Network security risks afflict even those who don’t outsource IT

    But even organizations that keep their entire IT shop in-house can become vulnerable to the risks of outsourcing. Luis Wiedemann, a network manager for Florida-based law firm Broad and Cassel, has dodged any push to outsource his department, but he still faces pressure from vendors to expose his network to ordinarily unauthorized users.

    “All of our application vendors insist on setting up a WebEx or GoToAssist session so they can take control and fix the issue themselves,” Wiedemann said.

    “They also give me an attitude when I, depending on my mood, refuse access to our servers. They’re also putting these remote access demands in contracts as well, indicating they can’t guarantee support if they don’t have unhindered access to the servers their applications reside on,” he added. “This is a tough pill to swallow for any security or network admin and brings a tremendous amount of fear for the integrity of security, should something go awry from leaving RDP [remote desktop protocol] opened to the Internet.”

    Network administrators presented with those ultimatums ought to look for different vendors. Vendors that outsource support have to be upfront with customers about their security best practices if customers are to trust them, Ayoub said.

    “Customers have to vote with their dollars,” he said. “We do need a shift in mindset and willingness to stand up to some of the vendors on some of these issues. It’s a really, really tough challenge, but hopefully, if you’re a large enough institution, you could say, ‘I’m not going to do business with you without some kind of local support,’ [or ask] ‘What kind of compensating control do you put on that?'”

    From: Jessica Scarpati, News Writer

    CCNA Test Tips

    Relax before exam: In order to avoid last minute stress, make sure that you arrive 10to 15 minutes early and relax before exam.

    Familiarize yourself with exam: Before taking the CCNA exam, you are given an option of to familiarize yourself with the way the exam is carried out (the exam interface). You must make sure to take advantage of this.

    Time Management Tips:
    Manage Time Spent On Each Question: The duration for the exam is 90 minutes. You must determine how much time you will spend on each question. While determining this take into consideration that simulations take more time to answer. Also keep in mind that some other questions are weighed more heavily and may take more time to answer (e.g. difficult subnetting problems).

    Be Sure Of Exam Interface: Clear your doubts, in case if you have any, regarding the rules for the CCNA exam or using the testing computer/software with the supervisor after he sets up your machine and before you start the exam. Remember that the exam is timed and you may loose your valuable test time for such questions, which you could have asked earlier.

    Jot Down Important Points Before Exam: Before you start the exam, ask for scratch paper and jot down points that you may require to recall when taking your exam. This is always allowed and proves to be very helpful while taking the exam. These may include:

    OSI Model layers
    Access lists
    Important tables such as powers of 2 (2^1 = 2; 2^2 = 4…2^8 = 256)
    Class A,B,C address range and properties e.g.
    Class A: Denoted by network.host.host.host; first octet is between 1 to 126;
    Important formulae such as 2^x-2 gives the number of hosts per subnet where x is the number of “off” bits in the subnet mask
    Binary to decimal conversion table & tips

    All Answers Are Final: Remember that you cannot return to a question once you have answered it. So, be very careful while answering to the questions and don’t rush as it might cost you valuable marks.

    Don’t Panic. There Is No Negative Marking: Although the exam software does not allow you to review questions you’ve answered, there is no negative marks for a wrong answer. The CCNA exam does not penalize you for wrong answer, so never leave any question unanswered. If you are not able to find out the correct answers to some questions, eliminate the possible answers that cannot be correct and narrow down your guess.

    From : techtarget.com
    Buy : Cisco Study Kits

    CCNA – CCIE Course

    Currently the corresponding exam numbers from Cisco for the CCNA are:

    640-802 CCNA Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1
    Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2
    640-822 ICND1 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1
    640-816 ICND2 Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2

    Currently the corresponding exam numbers from Cisco for the CCNP Program are :
    642-901 BSCI Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI)
    642-812 BCMSN Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN)
    642-825 ISCW Implementing Secure Converged Wide Area Networks (ISCW)
    642-845 ONT Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT)
    642-892 Composite Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI)
    Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN)
    642-825 ISCW Implementing Secure Converged Wide Area Networks (ISCW)
    642-845 ONT Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks (ONT)

    Currently the corresponding exam numbers from Cisco for the CCSP Program are:
    642-504 SNRS Networks with Cisco Routers and Switches (SNRS)
    642-524 SNAF Securing Networks with ASA Foundation (SNAF)
    642-533 IPS Implementing Cisco Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)
    Elective Exam(s) Elective Training
    642-591 CANAC Implementing Cisco NAC Appliance (CANAC)
    642-545 MARS Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis and Response System (MARS)
    642-515 SNAA Securing Networks with ASA Advanced (SNAA)

    642-436 CVOICE Cisco Voice over IP (CVOICE v6.0)
    Cisco Voice over IP fundamentals (CVF v1.0)
    642-446 CIPT1(CIPT1 v6.0) Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager Part 1
    642-642 QoS Quality of Service (QoS)
    642-456 CIPT2 Implementing Cisco Unified Communications Manager
    642-426 TUC(TUC v1.0) Troubleshooting Cisco Unified Communications Systems

    From : knowledge computers > cisco study kits

    Why use a network

    Connecting computers in a local area network lets people increase their inefficiency by sharing files, resources, and more. Local area networking has attained much popularity in recent years–so much that it seems networking was just invented. In reality, local area networks (LANs) appeared more than ten years ago, when the arrival of the microcomputer gave multiple users access to the same computer.

    These are three of the most common benefits of using a LAN.

    * Increased efficiency

    * Improved communications

    * Lowered costs.

    LANs increase the efficiency of workers by letting them exchange data and by eliminating redundant effort. The most common means of sharing information on a LAN is the corporate database. Corporations commonly have several departments performing very differeent tasks, but the departments are generally working with the same type of information. A mail-order company, for example, works with customer name and address data, product numbers and pricing data, and shipping and inventory information. It make the company far more efficient and organized to keep the data in one database, letting each user access the data that he or she needs.

    LANs improve communications by offering a way of sending messages electronically. Many networks have full-fledged mail systems, called elctronic mail (E-mail), through which users can send each other everything from corporate memos to informal hellos.

    LANs saved money by letting corporations license network versions of software to share among users. Likewise, there can be major savings in hardware purchasing because each network may need only one of each device. Rather than equipping each user with his or her own set of office equipment, a company can create a network consisting of a group of microcomputers with, for example, one laser printer, one tape backup unit, one CD-ROM drive, one fax machine, and one hard drive. By saving money in this way, it’s often possible to purchase higher-quality equipment for the group than would have been possible for each individual.

    Kinds of Networks

    LANs are divided into two types: client-server and peer-to-peer. a client-server network has one or more central computers, called file servers, to which are connected all the other workstations. A workstation is a personal computer connected to a file server. The file server controls all network activity, such as who can use the system and what data users have access to. The advantages of client-server networks include control, security, and speed. Drawbacks can include high cost, difficult installation, and overdependence on a single system (the server). When the server goes down, the whole network goes down.

    A peer-to-peer network is a group of microcomputers in which no single system is in charge and all workstations operate as equals. Each workstation can share its files and applications with any other workstations connected to the network. The benefits of peer-to-peer networking include simplicity, lower cost, ease of installation, and ease of maintenance. The drawbacks can include insufficient security, inadequate control, and lack of speed.

    With the two basic types of LANs defined, it’s important to understand that there are several varieties within each category, just as there’s a range of uses for each type. What type of LAN you need depends on your intended use for it.

    NetWare: A Client-Server Approach

    Novell NetWare is an example of a client-server network. What sets the client-server network apart from the peer-to-peer network is the function of the file server. It, too, is a personal computer, but it runs an operating system such as NetWare to control the network. The file server controls all the workstations on the network in terms of how they access network resources. A network administrator manages the file server by overseeing network security, troubleshooting problems, and more.

    The workstations connected to a NetWare network can still function as separate computers with their own operating systems. In fact, even when your computer is connected to a network, what you see on the screen may look the same as when you’re not on a network. But when you access the file server, the work you send back and forth is subject to the rights and restrictions imposed by the network administrator. Often, the network administrator takes care of setting users up on the network, which entails physically connecting the workstation to the file server, as well as adding the user name and assigning a password. Users generally know just enough to get their jobs done on the network, but knowing a bit more of the way the network works can sometimes help guide you to some shortcuts and quick fixes that may simplify your networking tasks.

    To begin, it’s important to understand how a workstation communicates with the file server. First, there’s the hardware connection, which consists of a networking card installed in the workstation with a cable that connects to the file server. The second piece of the puzzle is the software. The shell is the software needed for the workstation to communicate with the file server. The network administrator loads the shell onto each workstation. The shell directs your commands either to your own workstation or to the file server, depending on what kind of command it is.

    To understand how the file server stores the information you send it, think of a file cabinet as an analogy. The file server is the cabinet. Within it are the drawers, or volumes (Within the drawers (volumes) are folders, or directories. Within those folders (directories) are pieces of paper, or files.